Chinese tea has a long history, since the discovery of wild tea tree, from birth to boil soup to drink, to loose tea cake tea, from green tea to tea, from manual operation to the mechanization of tea, has experienced complicated during the period of change. To form various kinds of tea quality characteristics, in addition to the raw material of fresh tea varieties and leaves, the influence of processing conditions and the manufacturing method is an important determinant. In this paper, the history of tea to do a simple introduction.
(a) from raw drink boiled soup to dry collection
The use of tea, the earliest begin from chewing the fresh leaf of camellia sinensis, born to drink boiled soup. Raw cooking, similar to modern boiled soup. Such as yunnan jino still is a “cold tea” custom, fresh leaf is put in the bowl, add a little from leaves, garlic, pepper and salt and other ingredients, add water and mix well; Tea drink soup, has “the Book of Jin” down “people cooked tea plucking, wu yue ling Ming porridge”, even to the tang dynasty, still have the habit of eating tea porridge. In The Three Kingdoms, the official has been the simple processing of the tea, picked leaves to make a cake, dry or drying, this is the bud tea process.
(2) from steamed green plastic to dragon group chicken pie
Preliminary processing of tea is still a thick grass flavor, after repeated practice, and invented the steamed green tea. The tea fresh leaf steamed after breaking system, tea perforation, permeate drying, went to the gas. But it is still an indication, and through washing fresh leaves, steamed green squeeze, juice making cakes, tea an indication is greatly reduced. From tang to song dynasty, gong tea, set up the gong tea, the tea factory, officials research tea technology, tea production to the reform.
Steamed green made cakes in tang dynasty has gradually improve, liu yu, “made the tea classics.” account: “sunny, mining. Steamed, dao, pat, roasting, wear, sealing, the tea is too dry.” , namely the full steam oolong tea cake production process is: steamed tea, deblocking, dao, mold, pressure, the mould, columns, tea dry, perforation, baking, wear, sealing tea.
The song dynasty, tea technology develops very fast. The new products constantly emerging. Northern song dynasty years, the group sheet of longfeng tea prevailed. Broadcasting song dynasty information beiyuan gong tea recorded “account” at the beginning of tai-ping song xingguo,, longfeng mold, afford to beiyuan made tea, namely to don’t ordinary drink, longfeng tea began in this “.
Longfeng tea manufacturing technology, according to song dynasty Zhao Ruli “beiyuan don’t record”, has six steps: steaming tea, pressed tea and research, make tea, yellow tea, baked tea. Buds after back, soak in water, choose even steamed green shoots, leaves, steamed after wash it in cold water, then squeeze to water, big squeeze to tea juice, the water in the rear to juice made of baked clay porphyrization, reentry longfeng molded bread, and drying.
Longfeng tea process, cold water can keep green quickly rushed, improve the quality of the tea, and the practice of water and juice, due to take real taste, make tea enormous losses, and the entire production process takes work, these have prompted the emergence of steamed green loose tea.
(3) from the group bread to leaf tea
In steamed green group of tea production, in order to improve the defect with bitter hard, fragrance is not straight, take not knead after steam pressure gradually, the practice of direct drying, the steam group transformation for steamed green tea loose tea, keep the fragrance of tea, also appeared to loose tea appreciation method and the quality requirement.
This kind of reform in the song dynasty. “Load: sung. Shihuozhi tea, tea has two kinds, yue yue loose tea”, the piece of the cake tea. Yuan dynasty around the “agricultural book. Volume 10. The spectrum” valleys, on when making steamed green tea process have detailed “specimen, a steamer steaming, born by heart. Steamed, thin foil stands in baskets, took advantage of the wet rubbing, the roasting, uniform fire, baking to dry, don’t make coke”.
From song dynasty to yuan, cake tea, longfeng tea and tea at the same time, the Ming dynasty, because of zhu yuanzhang in 1391, a letter to the dragon ball and loose tea. Make steamed green tea was popular.
(4) from steamed green to liquor
Compared to the tea and tea, steamed green tea fragrance in the bulk tea get better retention, however, use steamed green method, fragrance rich enough disadvantages still exist. Then appeared dry and develop excellent tea aroma of traditional technology.
Since the tang dynasty has began to have a traditional green tea. Tang liu yuxi “xishan LanRe try flying,” said: “after the mountain monk eaves tea several plexus… must be fry into full chamber”, and “pick to fry over in a moment,” the words, and that leaves after making full chamber and smell, time don’t often have making, this is the earliest written records about traditional green tea have been discovered.
With the further development of tang, song and yuan dynasty, traditional tea gradually increased, to the Ming dynasty, traditional method is increasingly perfect, in the “tea”, “tea shu”, “tea solution” are detailed. Its manufacturing method for roughly: filming for the high temperature, rolling, after frying, baking to dry, the technique method and modern new-type roasted green tea is very similar, see appendix green tea manufacturing process.
(5) developed from green tea and other tea
In the process of tea, because pay attention to ensure that the tea aroma and taste, by different processing methods, never fermentation, fermentation to the whole series of different fermentation fermentation process caused the change of the essence of tea, to explore some rules, which makes the tea from the fresh leaf to the raw material, through the different manufacturing process, made all kinds of color, aroma, taste and shape quality of the different characteristics of the six major tea category, namely, green tea, yellow tea, black tea, white tea, black tea, oolong tea.
(1) the generation of yellow tea
Green tea is the basic process of editing, rolling, drying, craft when green tea making improper control, such as filming for the traditional low temperature, steamed green pushes the time is long, or failed to timely after filming stand cold rolling in time, or failed to timely to dry fry dried after rolling, piling up too long, make the leaves turn yellow, when produce yellow leaves, like yellow tea later. As a result, the generation of yellow tea may improper process evolved from green tea. In Ming dynasty, xu times shu “tea shu” (1597) recorded this evolution history.
(2) the emergence of black tea
When filming for the green tea leaf quantity too much HuoWen is low, the leaf color into approximate black deep brown, green, or green shai accumulation after fermentation, w into black, this is the process of producing black tea. The manufacture of black tea began in the middle of Ming dynasty. Chen Ming empire speak hydrophobic recorded the production of black tea (1524) : “tea is still low, about black tea of origin limited…” .
(3) the origin and evolution of white tea
White tea, tang, song when the so-called refers to accidentally discovered bacterial leaf tea picking tea, and later developed not fry not knead into a white tea is different. In Ming dynasty, there was a similar white tea now. Tian Yiheng “boiling springs sketch” records: “tea time for fire author, born of the sun, also near nature… qing cui bright, especially cute”.
Modern white tea green tea is from the song dynasty three color thin shoots, silver water bud gradually evolved. Originally refers to the chopped dried tea surface densely white hair, colour and lustre is white “baekho silver needle”, then the development and produce the white peony, GongMei, life of eyebrow and other colors.
(4) the emergence and development of black tea
Black tea originated in the 16th century. Found in the development of tea industry, the sun instead of editing, color red, the black tea leaves in after rolling. The earliest black tea production from fujian Ann’s start of kinds of small black tea. Liu Jing in the qing dynasty in a moment’s leisure set account “mountain QuChu 9 of villages and towns, expert for basic neccesities. Outside the province shaowu, Jiang Xiguang letter space of tea production, such as black, red soup, vernacular name jiangxi wu, private sales at all star village”. Since the star school kind of black tea, has a time black tea gradually evolved. After the 1920 s, Indian red broken tea development will be chopped tea processing, our country in the 1950 s began to manufacture the red broken tea.
(5) the origin of oolong tea
Method between green tea, black tea, oolong tea green tea first, then black tea process, thus realize the oolong tea.
The origin of oolong tea, academia is controversial, some inferences in the northern song dynasty, some presumption in the reign of xianfeng, qing dynasty, but believed that the earliest initiative in fujian. King thatched cottage at the beginning of the qing dynasty the tea said: “wuyi tea… tea after mining, with bamboo basket evenly spread, rack in FengRi, called sunning, initiate the cyan gradually closed, and then add Fried roasting… bring out the green and red, blue is fry color, red color is baked also”. Method of producing now fujian wuyi rock tea is still kept the characteristics of the traditional process.
(6) from the tea into the flower tea
Tea add spices or worship has long history. Song dynasty Cai Xiang mentioned “tea” add spices tea “tea is delicious, and gong to borneol and cream, to help them sweet”. A record of the southern song dynasty have the jasmine tea firing, ShiYue note: “step month. Jasmine” word “jasmine… the ancients used the flower from the ridge table baked tea”.
In Ming dynasty, or whether more perfect flower tea processing technology, and can be used for tea is a great variety of flowers, according to the tea spectrum records, osmanthus, jasmine, rose, rose, LanHui, orange flower, gardenia, combination, the plum blossom as many as nine. Modern popular flower-scented, in addition to the above flower seeds, and Hester prynne, hawksbill, chloranthus, etc.
Tea technology reform constantly, all kinds of tea machinery appeared, first small manual work, and then each working procedure of mechanization. Except for a few precious tea still by manual processing, most of the tea processing adopts the mechanized production.